Comics & Literacy

Resources and References

Cartoon Analysis Worksheet--Created by the National Archives for the study of comic strips and books.

Cartoon Art Museum--Educational programming at the San Francisco museum.

Comic Book Literacy
--Homepage for a 2010 documentary on connections between comics and literacy education

Comic Book Project
--Arts-based literacy initiative from the nonprofit Center for Education Pathwas with materials published by Dark Horse Comics.  The program encourages children to learn literacy practices through comics creation and also provides curriculum materials to educators for a small fee.

Comics in Education--The online iteration of graphic novelist Gene Yang's Master's Thesis.  Includes (not recently updated) links to teaching resoruces

Electric Spirit--Interactive webcomic that uses a manga (Japanese comics)-inspired style and a Flash interface to teach users to read Japanese.

Media Meltdown--Educators resource page for a graphic novel series intended to support the teaching of media literacy.

Museum of Comic and Cartoon Art (MoCCA) --Educational programming at the New York museum.

Sequential Art, Graphic Novels, and Comics: Technology Enhanced Learning--The extensive resource page for a comics arts and information literacy workshop. (see, also, Lamb and Johnson, 2009, in references below).

Teaching Comics--The website of the National Association of Comic Arts Educators (NACAE) contains multiple resources for educators, including sample curriculum, syllabuses, and exercises for courses in primary, secondary, and higher education.

Beaty, B. (2005). Frederic Wertham and the Critique of Mass Culture. Jackson, MS: University Press of Mississippi.

Bitz, M. (March 2004). The Comic Book Project: The Lives of Urban Youth. Art Education, 57(2), 33-39.

Carter, J. B. (Ed). (2007). Building Literacy Connections with Graphic Novels: Page by Page, Panel by Panel. Urbana, IL: National Council of Teachers of English.

Cope, B. and Kalantzis, M. (2000) Designs for social futures. In B. Cope and M. Kalantzis (Eds.), Multiliteracies: Literacy Learning and the Design of Social Futures (pp. 203-234). London: Routledge.

Daniels, L. (1991). Marvel: Five fabulous decades of the world’s greatest comics. New York: Harry N. Abrams.

Eisner, W. (1985). Comics and Sequential Art. Tamarac: Poorhouse Press.

Ellis, A. & Highsmith, D. (2000) About Face: Comic books in library literature. Serials Review, 26(2), 21-44.

Frank, J. (1942). Let’s Look at the Comics. Child Study, 19(3), 76-77, 90-91.

----. (1943). The role of comic strips and comic books in child life. Supplementary Educational Monographs, 57, 158-162.

----. (1944). What’s in the Comics? Journal of Educational Sociology, 18(4), 214-222.

----. (1949). Some Questions and Answers for Teachers and Parents. Journal of Educational Sociology, 23(4), 206-214.

Gillenwater, C. (2009). Lost Literacy: How Graphic Novels Can Recover Visual Literacy in the Literacy Classroom. Afterimage 37(2), 33-36.

Goldsmith, F. (2005). Graphic Novels Now: Building, managing, and marketing a dynamic collection. Chicago, IL: ALA Editions.

Gorman, M. (2003). Getting Graphic! Using Graphic Novels to Promote Literacy with Preteens and Teens. Columbus, OH: Linworth.

Hadju, D. (2008). Ten cent plague. New York: Farrar, Straus and Giroux.

Haugaard, K. (1973). Comic books: Conduits to culture? Reading Teacher, 27, 54-55.

Heisler, F. (1946/1947). Comparison of Comic Book and Non-Comic Book Readers of the Elementary School. Journal of Educational Research, 40, 458-464.

Henne, F. (1943). Whence the comic strip: Its development and content. Supplementary Educational Monographs, 57, 153-158.

Hill, G. E. & Trent, M. E. (1940/1941). Children's Interest in Comic Strips. Journal of Educational Research, 34, 30-36.

Hill, G. E. (1943). The Vocabulary of Comic Strips. Journal of Educational Psychology, 34(2), 77-78.
Hutchinson, K. (1949) An experiment in the use of comics as instructional material. Journal of Educational Sociology, 23, 236-245.

Jacobs, D. (2007) More than words: Comics as a means of teaching multiple literacies. English Journal, 96 (3), 19-25.

Jenkins, H. (2006) Convergence Culture: Where Old and New Media Collide. New York: New York University Press.

Kalantzis, M. and Cope, B. (2000). A Multiliteracies pedagogy: A pedagogical supplement. In B. Cope and M. Kalantzis (Eds.), Multiliteracies: Literacy Learning and the Design of Social Futures (pp. 239-248). London: Routledge.

Kaltenbacher, M. (2004). Perspectives on multimodality: From the early beginnings to the state of the art. Information Design Journal, 12(3), 190-207.

Krashen, S. (2004). The power of reading. Portsmouth: Heinemann and Westport, CN: Libraries Unlimited.

Kress, G. (2000). Multimodality. In B. Cope and M. Kalantzis (Eds.), Multiliteracies: Literacy Learning and the Design of Social Futures (pp. 182-202). London: Routledge.

---. (2003). Literacy in the New Media Age. London: Routledge.

---. (2004). Reading images; multimodality, representation and new media. Information Design Journal, 12(2), 110-119.

Kress, G. and van Leeuwen, T. (1996). Reading Images: The Grammar of Visual Design. London: Routledge.

Kuhlman, M. (2007) The traumatic temporality of Art Spiegelman's In the Shadow of No Towers. Journal of Popular Culture, 40 (5), 849–866.

Lamb, A. and Johnson, L.
(Oct. 2009). Graphic Novels, Digital Comics, and Technology-Enhanced Learning: Part 2. Teacher Librarian, 37(1), 70-75.

Legman, G. (1948). The Comic Books and the Public. American Journal of Psychotherapy, 2(3), 473-477.

Lehman, H.C. & Witty, P. (1927). The compensatory function of the Sunday “funny” paper. Journal of Applied Psychology, 11(3), 202-211.

Lopes, P. (2006). Culture and Stigma: Popular culture and the case of comic books. Sociological Forum, 21(3), 387-414.

Luckiesh, M. & Moss, F. K. (1942). Legibility in Comic Books. Sight-Saving Review, 12(1), 19-24.

Matz, C. (2004a). Are Comic Books a Worthy Consideration on Scholarly Grounds? Against the Grain, 16(1), 78-79.

McCloud, S. (1993). Understanding Comics. Northampton, MA: Tundra.

McCloud, S. (2000). Reinventing Comics. New York: HarperCollins.

Millard, E. and Marsh, J. (July 2001). Words with pictures: the role of visual literacy in writing and its implication for schooling. READING literacy and language, 54-61.

Mori, M. (2007). Graphic Novels: Leading the Way to Teen Literacy and Leadership. Indiana Libraries 26(3), 29-32.

Mosse, H. (1948). American Journal of Psychotherapy, 2(3), 477-483.

Mulberry, H.M. (1943). Comic Strips and Comic Books? Supplementary Educational Monographs, 57, 163-166.

Norton, B. (2003). The motivating power of comic books: Insights from Archie comic readers. The Reading Teacher, 57 (2), 140-7.

Nyberg, A. K. (1998). Seal of Approval: The history of the Comics Code. Jackson, MS: University of Mississippi Press.

Psychiatrist Asks Crime Comics Ban. (1950, December 14). New York Times, p. 50.

Schultz, H. E. (1949). Censorship or Self Regulation? Journal of Educational Sociology, 23(4), 215-224.

Schwartz,A. and Rubinstein-Avila, E. (2006). Understanding the manga hype: Uncovering the multimodality of comic-book literacies. Journal of Adolescent & Adult Literacy 50(1), 40-9.

Sones, W. W. D. (1944). The Comics and Instructional Method. Journal of Educational Sociology, 18(4), 232-240.

Thrasher, F. M. (1949). The Comics and Delinquency: Cause or Scapegoat. Journal of Educational Sociology, 23(4), 195-205

Thorndike, R. L. (1941). Words and the Comics. Journal of Experimental Education, 10(2), 110-113.

Tilley, C. (2007). Of Nightingales and Superman: How Youth Services Librarians Responded to Comics Between the Years 1938 and 1955. Dissertation.

Tyner, Kathleen R. "Splintering Literacies." Literacy in a Digital World: Teaching and Learning in the Age of Information. Mahwah, N.J.: L. Erlbaum Associates, 1998. Ch. 4 (pp. 60-68).

Comic Books and Juvenile Delinquency: Interim Report of the Committee on the judiciary pursuant to S. Res. 89 and S. Res. 190, U.S. Senate, 84th Cong., 1st Sess. (1954).

Versaci, R. (2001). How comic books can change the way our students see literature: One teacher's perspective. English Journal, 91 (2), 61-67.

Wertham, F. (1948) The Psychopathology of Comic Books. American Journal of Psychotherapy, 2(3), 472-473.

Witty, P. (1941a). Children’s Interest in the Comics. Journal of Experimental Education, 10(2), 100-104.

----. (1941b). Reading the Comics—A Comparative Study. Journal of Experimental Education, 10(2), 105-109.

Yang G. (2003). “Conclusion.” Comics in Education. comicsedu/concl.html [viewed 1 Dec 2009].

Zorbaugh, H. (1944). Editorial. Journal of Educational Sociology, 18(4), 193-194.